C. PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION OF POWER THEMES AND MESSAGES
Individuals send messages out on three levels. Lawyers are basically wordsmiths. For years we have been concerned about what impact words and phrases we should use or what analogies we could make to drive a point home. In essence, our focus as lawyers was on what “we said.” Unfortunately, words alone are the component of communications which contribute the least to the overall impact or persuasiveness of a message. When social science researchers talk about words alone, they use the term “linguistics”. When they talk about how a person says the words, voice modulation, intonation, pauses, etc., they use the term “paralinguistics.” Nonverbal communication is everything else that goes along with the message such as facial expressions, eye movements, body movements, etc. For our purpose we shall break a message down into three components, but for ease of understanding, we shall use lay terms. Those three components are 1) verbal-words alone, 2) voice – how you say it, and 3) nonverbal – body movements, facial expressions, etc.
When social science studied the impact of a message as relating to those three channels of delivery, the results were quite surprising in terms of the impact of a message. Words alone account for only 8% of the impact! How we say it or voice alone counts for another 37%. But the majority of the impact persuasiveness or believability of a message, 55% relates to the nonverbal content. Therefore, the majority of a message’s impact comes from its nonverbal content. This is not to say that all three parts of a message are not important. Of course you have to have the right words. Of course you have to use impact words and phrases. Of course you have to drive home points home with analogy. But even when you do that effectively, you cannot ignore the fact that how you say it, how you move, where you stand, and how you use eye contact in giving the message plays a primary role in determining whether or not that message is going to be believable and persuasive.
Messages are received and processed through one of three primary channels or representational systems. Even when we are focusing on what we are saying, how we are saying it, and making sure that our messages are sent effectively on all three levels; we may still not communicate effectively. To communicate effectively we must understand that human communication is a two-way process. A message must not only be considered as to how it is sent out, but we must look at how the messages are going to be received. In essence, we must be aware of the person or group of persons to whom we are sending the message. This is often referred to as having a “they focus”. That is, most lawyers have an “I” or “we” focus. They focus on themselves, the judge, the law, the facts, etc. Many lawyers do not realize that they should be focusing on only one group in the courtroom and that is the jury. To be really persuasive one has to be constantly aware of the jury’s changing moods, attitudes and reaction. It is part of having a “they focus.”
Messages are received not only through preconceived notions, ideas, and beliefs, but they are processed through what social science calls a primary channel or representational system. There are three recognized channels by which people process information with. Those channels are 1) visual, 2) auditory, and 3) kinesthetic.
The person who is using a visual channel sees the message in his minds eye. He visualizes the information in order to understand it. On the other hand, if the person is using an auditory channel to process the information, he has to hear it in order to understand it. In essence, in his mind he hears the information, repeats it, or says it to himself in order to process it, remember it, and store it. This person is said to be using the auditory channel or representational system. Some people use the kinesthetic channel to process information. That is they process information through their guts or with their feelings. People using this kinesthetic channel have to touch an object to assess it and understand it. Most people are using either the auditory or visual representational systems to process information most of the time.
An important point to remember here is that the person with whom we are communicating uses all three representational systems to process information at one time or another. What we are concerned with is what is the primary channel being used when we are trying to communicate with that person. Most people tend to favor one channel over another. Some people use the visual channel most of the time. On the other hand, some people use the auditory channel most of the time. But do not forget that people switch channels from time to time. Still identifying a person’s primary method by which he or she processes information can be a critical asset if we want to communicate effectively.
The reason it is critical to know the channel which a person generally processes information is that if we use that channel to send that information, it makes it easy for the person hearing the message to understand and retain the information contained therein. Therefore, whether we are communicating with the opposing counsel during negotiations, or a judge drawing a pretrial conference, or the jurors during the trial we should try and ascertain the primary representational system that person is using at that time. If we do this, we can send a message out which communicates easily with that representational system and therefore the person is much more likely to understand the information, accept it, and believe it.
We should consider two methods by which we can identify a person’s primary representational system or channel for processing information. The first is to listen to the words a person uses when they are sending out a message. Words and phrases people use can reveal that person’s primary channel for processing information. Secondly, when we give that person information to process, we can watch their eye movement pattern. Neuropsychologically, the eye patterns differ when information is processed differently.
First we will start with a chart taken from “Courtroom Communication Strategies” which list verbal predicates a person uses depending upon the channel from which they are sending the message. Notice that the verbal person uses words and phrases like “see what I mean.” Whereas the auditory person will say often things like “do you hear what I am saying.” A kinesthetic person will use phrases like “I want you to feel right about this.” Practice identifying the channel by which a person with whom you are communicating is processing a message. If you use the same verbal predicates back, you will then be matching that person’s channel for processing information or representational system and the other person will feel very comfortable with you. You increase the probability that they will accept your message and that it will have greater impact.
Further, one can assess a person’s representational system by watching the eye movement patterns of that person. Before checking the eye pattern movements of a person, however, you have to give them information which you ask them to think about or process. Be sure that they are processing information when you check their eye movement patterns. A person’s eye movements, if they are not processing information, can be insignificant. If one is processing information visually, the eyes move up to the right or left. Therefore any time the eyes move up, either right or left, one can assume that the person is processing the information visually–he is seeing it in his mind. If on the other hand while the person is processing information the eyes stay even and move from side to side, one can assume that person is processing information auditorially – he is listening to the information in his head. On the other hand, if a person’s eye movements are down, it generally means the person is trying to get in touch with his emotions. He or she is processing the information kinesthetically getting in touch with his or her feelings about the information.
Remember it’s a two-way process, therefore, it is crucial to always have a “they focus.” One can be sending out a message beautifully, communicating with impact on all three levels. But if one does not have a “they focus”, the great elocution may fall on deaf ears. The message cannot be sent with impact until we are sure of a person’s attitude, beliefs, and representational system to whom we are sending the message. This is why we should always think of the jurors or anyone else with whom we are trying to communicate as a loving, caring, fellow human beings. Jurors should not be just a number. We should know by memory each jurors first and last names. In your mind, think of them by their first names. We should have positive feelings toward them so they can have positive feelings toward us. This type of “they focus” is necessary when we want to communicate with another human being whether that be our opposing counsel, the judge, the juror, or anyone else.
1. Non Verbal Communication – Aristotle taught that orators could “heighten” the effect of their words with suitable gestures, tones, dress and dramatic action. Cicero, Rome’s greater orator said “delivery is a sort of language of the body-the management, with grace, of voice, countenance and gestures. Demosthenes, Greece’s greatest orator taught that delivery is the greatest pathway to success and successful oratory. He listed the three most important ingredients of oratory as action, action, action. Shakespeare’s advice to actors was “suit the action to the word.”
You can often tell the experienced from the inexperienced lawyer by the way they handle objections. When an objection is made against evidence being offered by an inexperienced lawyer and the judge rules against him, the inexperienced lawyer hunches his shoulders forward, and looks nonverbally whipped. He is visibly shaken. The experienced lawyer understands that the jury has a difficult time distinguishing between the plaintiff and the defendant. Jurors have no idea of the significance of legal objections and particularly do not understand the difference between “sustained” or “overruled”. The experienced lawyer knows he should always look like the winner no matter what happens. Whatever the judge says after the other counsel has objected, whether it is sustained or overruled, it should not matter nonverbally. Counsel should deliberately hold his head high, look at His Honor and say “thank you” no matter what the ruling. The jury will think you have won even if you have lost. Never lose face in front of the jury. Always remain confident and in control.
a. The Importance of the Pause
Often, the most important thing an attorney can say is nothing. The pause for dramatic effect has been used by great orators over a number of millennia. The pause serves two major purposes for the orator:
First, the pause allows the statement immediately preceding it to soak in thoroughly; and secondly, the pause will recapture the minds of those who have strayed and cause those who have been listening to pay more close attention to the statement that follows the pause.
Often, inaction is the most effective means of nonverbal communication, i.e., the use of the emphatic pause.
The major uses of the pause during oratory include the following:
1. To arouse the anticipation of the listeners;
2. To stress importance of each phrase;
3. To accentuate humor;
4. To allow the rhetorical question to be answered;
5. To initially capture the attention of your audience;
6. To emphasize the theme during repetition;
7. To dramatize a climactic ending.
Consider the following brilliant use of pause in the delivery by Winston Churchill of two of his most famous sentences (slant lines \ indicate pauses)
Never \ in the field of human conflict \ was so much owed \ by so many \ to so few.
Let us, therefore, \ brace ourselves to our duties, \ and so bear ourselves \ that, if the British Empire and its commonwealth \ lasts for 1000 years, \ men will still say, \ ‘this \ was their finest hour.’
In structuring the use of the pause, a simple guideline is to use the pause as punctuation in the sentence. Without punctuation we would have a stream of consciousness run on sentences which run the risk of failing to convey to the reader the message which the author wished to convey. Similarly, speeches without pauses fail to utilize all of the tools available to the speaker in order to most effectively convey the message.
b. Pacing the Jury
In addition to using verbal, vocal and nonverbal cues to create the appropriate mood for your case, it is necessary to pace the jury during summation. The attorney has paced the individual juror during voir dire and he has watched the jurors closely during trial. The attorney knows which jurors relate to one another, which jurors like humor, and what cues elicit desired responses, and what phraseology and verbiage to use. He also has some information regarding their background. Pacing in summation is based on weaving that information into the phraseology and nature of the summation. The nature of the summation is based on the intensity of the emotional impact to be conveyed to the particular jury type that you are facing. A conservative upper class jury will not be persuaded by a summation loaded with emotional impact. On the other hand, a blue-collar-type jury is more likely to react favorably toward an emotional summation containing a strong theme, pictures and impact words and phrases. All of these factors should be considered when pacing the jury in summation.